* The polar regions of the earth, around the north and south poles, are oceans that are frozen most of the year.
* The Arctic Ocean, which surrounds the North Pole, is the world’s fifth largest ocean. It is also the world’s shallowest ocean. Winters are characterized by persistent darkness, clear skies, and sub-freezing temperatures. Summers are relatively cold and foggy with constant daylight. Although the icepack of the Arctic Ocean is surrounded by open seas in the summer, it doubles in size in the winter.
* The Southern Ocean, surrounding the South Pole, is the world’s fourth largest ocean and the world’s windiest place. Temperatures are typically well below freezing and the icepack increases by a factor of seven in the winter.