Ernest Hemingway was one of the most important authors of the 20th century. He was born into a wealthy family in Oak Park, Illinois, in 1899. Hemingway was interested in writing from an early age and wrote for both the Kansas City Star and Toronto Star before writing his first major novel. In 1921, a newly married Hemingway moved to Paris and lived alongside F. Scott Fitzgerald.
After publishing several short stories, Hemingway wrote The Sun Also Rises (1926), a semi-autographical piece about Americans living in Paris. The book was immediately met with critical acclaim, and Hemingway had established himself as a famous writer. In 1929, Hemingway wrote A Farewell to Arms, an autobiographical story about the love affair between a British nurse and an American soldier that ends with the death of the nurse. Hemingway’s second major piece became one of the most popular books in the World War I era. Hemingway focused on short stories following the war. During this time, he also wrote his only full-length play, The Fifth Column (1938). In 1940, Hemingway published For Whom the Bell Tolls, about an American soldier fighting on the side of the Republicans as part of the International Brigade. It was perhaps his best literary accomplishment. After serving in World War II, Hemingway published Across the River and Into the Trees (1950), about World War II Venice, Italy. In 1952, Hemingway published Old Man and the Sea, which received rave reviews. In 1953, he was awarded the Pulitzer Prize, and in 1954, the Nobel Peace Prize. After suffering severe injuries in an airplane crash and bush fire, Hemingway committed suicide in 1961.