The Fifth Amendment guarantees a variety of rights:
First, individuals suspected in capital crimes (murder, treason etc.) cannot be made to stand trial for a crime unless a grand jury (a panel of 23 people gathered to hear evidence from a prosecutor) issues an indictment (a document charging an individual with a crime), unless during times of war or times in which the general public may not be safe.
Second, a person who has been on trial cannot be made to stand trial again for the same crime (double jeopardy).
Third, individuals on trial cannot be made to be witnesses against themselves. Furthermore, witnesses can “plead the fifth,” or, refuse to answer a prosecutor’s question, if the answer may prove incriminating (suggesting guilt).
Fourth, individuals cannot be punished for supposed crimes without due process (administration of justice).
Fifth, private property may not be taken away from individuals by the government or state without fair compensation. The government and state however, can confiscate private property by claiming Eminent Domain. Eminent Domain is usually invoked so that private land can be used for development or for other public uses. If Eminent Domain is invoked, fair compensation must be made.